Clostridium Botulinum

Meet Clostridium botulinum, a microbe with both impressive capabilities and serious risks. This bacterium causes botulism – a rare but severe condition that can lead to flaccid muscle paralysis and respiratory failure [1]. However, the same characteristics that make C. botulinum lethal also can make it beneficial.

Clostridium botulinum bacteria
Clostridium botulinum bacteria

Clostridium Botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore forming bacterium commonly found in soil, plants, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals. The produced spores are usually harmless, but they can develop into active bacteria that produce neurotoxins.

These neurotoxins contain the highly potent botulinum toxin, known as the “miracle poison” affecting the central nervous system[2][3]. Botulinum toxin is one of the deadliest biological substances known and can cause botulism. Interestingly, though it is known for its lethal nature, botulinum toxin is also the primary ingredient in Botox, the popular cosmetic treatment to reduce wrinkles [1].

Clostridium Botulinum and Neurotoxins

There are seven strains of this bacterium, defined by the specific neurotoxin it can produce (A, B, C, D, E, F and G)[3]. Human botulism is caused mainly by types A, B, E and F. Types C and D cause toxicity only to animals and birds.  C. botulinum bacteria can lead to botulism in different forms such as consuming contaminated food (most common source is homemade canned food), wound infection or from colonisation of the infant gastrointestinal tract[5][6].

Chemical structure of a botulinum toxin molecule
Chemical structure of a botulinum toxin molecule

This bacterium can form spores almost everywhere in the environment and is resistant to some conditions and cooking methods, like boiling. We frequently ingest these spores unknowingly, since the spores we ingest have not germinated.

The neurotoxins are only produced when the spores germinate; this generally occurs under rare circumstances that include anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions, low acidity (pH >4.5), low salt and sugar content, and temperatures of 3°C–37°C, depending on the strain[11]. Therefore, “ready to eat” foods in low oxygen packing are more frequently associated with foodborne botulism such as low acid preserved vegetables, canned fish, and meat products[4].

Foodborne contamination is normally prevented from the beginning by basic food practice and hygiene, proper refrigeration, avoiding damaged or bulging cans, and throwing away foul-smelling food[4].

Clostridium Botulinum and Cosmetics

Despite the potential risks associated with this bacterium, it has been found to be incredibly useful. Botulinum toxin injections are a pharmaceutical product commonly used for clinical and cosmetic purposes. It is available under brand names such as Botox, Xeomin, and others.

These treatments are applied using the purified and heavily diluted neurotoxin type A. It works by blocking the release of acetylcholine, which causes paralysis of the specific nerve signals that make the muscles contract; in this way, it forces the local muscles to relax, therefore preventing the appearance of wrinkles or lines[7][8].

Clostridium Botulinum and Pain Relief

Botulinum toxin holds great potential for pain relief treatments. Neurotoxins are administrated for several musculoskeletal disorders. It is also used for chronic pain diseases, such as arthritis[9] headaches, and myofascial syndrome[10].

Clostridium botulinum presents a unique contrast between its potential to cause harm and its beneficial applications. It is the producer of one of the most lethal natural toxins, the botulinum toxin. This prevalent organism is well known for causing botulism, a deadly disease; yet, it also can be applied in a variety of therapeutic and cosmetic practises. This dynamic between harmful and beneficial is what makes this bacterium so interesting and potentially important for new therapies that enhance quality of life.

References

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